Whether respiratory epithelial cells regulate the final transit of extravasated neutrophils into the inflamed airspace or are a passive barrier is poorly understood. Alveolar epithelial type (AT)1 cells, best known for solute transport and gas exchange, have few established immune roles. Epithelial membrane protein (EMP)2, a tetraspan protein that promotes recruitment of integrins to lipid rafts, is highly expressed in AT1 cells, but has no known function in lung biology. Here, we show that Emp2–/– mice exhibit reduced neutrophil influx into the airspace after a wide range of inhaled exposures. During bacterial pneumonia, Emp2–/– mice had attenuated neutrophilic lung injury and improved survival. Bone marrow chimeras, intravital neutrophil labelling, and in vitro assays suggested that defective transepithelial migration of neutrophils into the alveolar lumen occurs in Emp2–/– lungs. Emp2–/– AT1 cells had dysregulated surface display of multiple adhesion molecules, associated with reduced raft abundance. Epithelial raft abundance was dependent upon putative cholesterol-binding motifs in EMP2, whereas EMP2 supported adhesion molecule display and neutrophil transmigration through suppression of caveolins. Taken together, we propose that EMP2-dependent membrane organization ensures proper display on AT1 cells of a suite of proteins required to instruct paracellular neutrophil traffic into the alveolus.
Wan-Chi Lin, Kymberly M. Gowdy, Jennifer H. Madenspacher, Rachel L. Zemans, Kazuko Yamamoto, Miranda R. Lyons-Cohen, Hideki Nakano, Kyathanahalli Janardhan, Carmen J. Williams, Donald N. Cook, Joseph P. Mizgerd, Michael B. Fessler
Macrophage activation in response to LPS is coupled to profound metabolic changes, typified by accumulation of the TCA cycle intermediates citrate, itaconate, and succinate. We have identified that endogenous type I IFN controls the cellular citrate/α-ketoglutarate ratio and inhibits expression and activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH); and, via 13C-labeling studies, demonstrated that autocrine type I IFN controls carbon flow through IDH in LPS-activated macrophages. We also found that type I IFN–driven IL-10 contributes to inhibition of IDH activity and itaconate synthesis in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Our findings have identified the autocrine type I IFN pathway as being responsible for the inhibition of IDH in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
David P. De Souza, Adrian Achuthan, Man K.S. Lee, Katrina J. Binger, Ming-Chin Lee, Sophia Davidson, Dedreia L. Tull, Malcolm J. McConville, Andrew D. Cook, Andrew J. Murphy, John A. Hamilton, Andrew J. Fleetwood
Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of severe neonatal morbidities. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were recently implicated in the regulation of immune responses in newborns. Here, we report that the presence of MDSCs and their functional activity in infants are closely associated with the maturity of newborns and the presence of lactoferrin (LF) in serum. Low amounts of MDSCs at birth predicted the development of severe pathology in preterm infants — necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In vitro treatment of newborn neutrophils and monocytes with LF converted these cells to MDSCs via the LRP2 receptor and activation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Decrease in the expression of LRP2 was responsible for the loss of sensitivity of adult myeloid cells to LF. LF-induced MDSCs (LF-MDSCs) were effective in the treatment of newborn mice with NEC, acting by blocking inflammation, resulting in increased survival. LF-MDSCs were more effective than treatment with LF protein alone. In addition to affecting NEC, LF-MDSCs demonstrated potent ability to control ovalbumin-induced (OVA-induced) lung inflammation, dextran sulfate sodium–induced (DSS-induced) colitis, and concanavalin A–induced (ConA-induced) hepatitis. These results suggest that cell therapy with LF-MDSCs may provide potent therapeutic benefits in infants with various pathological conditions associated with dysregulated inflammation.
Yufeng Liu, Michela Perego, Qiang Xiao, Yumei He, Shuyu Fu, Juan He, Wangkai Liu, Xing Li, Yanlai Tang, Xiaoyu Li, Weiming Yuan, Wei Zhou, Fan Wu, Chunhong Jia, Qiliang Cui, George S. Worthen, Erik A. Jensen, Dmitry I. Gabrilovich, Jie Zhou
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) or e-cigarettes have emerged as a popular recreational tool among adolescents and adults. Although the use of ENDS is often promoted as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, few comprehensive studies have assessed the long-term effects of vaporized nicotine and its associated solvents, propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG). Here, we show that compared with smoke exposure, mice receiving ENDS vapor for 4 months failed to develop pulmonary inflammation or emphysema. However, ENDS exposure, independent of nicotine, altered lung lipid homeostasis in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. Comprehensive lipidomic and structural analyses of the lungs revealed aberrant phospholipids in alveolar macrophages and increased surfactant-associated phospholipids in the airway. In addition to ENDS-induced lipid deposition, chronic ENDS vapor exposure downregulated innate immunity against viral pathogens in resident macrophages. Moreover, independent of nicotine, ENDS-exposed mice infected with influenza demonstrated enhanced lung inflammation and tissue damage. Together, our findings reveal that chronic e-cigarette vapor aberrantly alters the physiology of lung epithelial cells and resident immune cells and promotes poor response to infectious challenge. Notably, alterations in lipid homeostasis and immune impairment are independent of nicotine, thereby warranting more extensive investigations of the vehicle solvents used in e-cigarettes.
Matthew C. Madison, Cameron T. Landers, Bon-Hee Gu, Cheng-Yen Chang, Hui-Ying Tung, Ran You, Monica J. Hong, Nima Baghaei, Li-Zhen Song, Paul Porter, Nagireddy Putluri, Ramiro Salas, Brian E. Gilbert, Ilya Levental, Matthew J. Campen, David B. Corry, Farrah Kheradmand
Patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) have a clonal population of blood cells deficient in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, resulting from a mutation in the X-linked gene PIGA. Here we report on a set of patients in whom PNH results instead from biallelic mutation of PIGT on chromosome 20. These PIGT-PNH patients have clinically typical PNH, but they have in addition prominent auto-inflammatory features, including recurrent attacks of aseptic meningitis. In all these patients we find a germ-line point mutation in one PIGT allele, whereas the other PIGT allele is removed by somatic deletion of a 20q region comprising maternally imprinted genes implicated in myeloproliferative syndromes. Unlike in PIGA-PNH cells, GPI is synthesized in PIGT-PNH cells and, since its attachment to proteins is blocked, free GPI is expressed on the cell surface. From studies of patients’ leukocytes and of PIGT-knockout THP-1 cells we show that, through increased IL-1β secretion, activation of the lectin pathway of complement and generation of C5b-9 complexes, free GPI is the agent of auto-inflammation. Eculizumab treatment abrogates not only intravascular hemolysis, but also auto-inflammation. Thus, PIGT-PNH differs from PIGA-PNH both in the mechanism of clonal expansion and in clinical manifestations.
Britta Höchsmann, Yoshiko Murakami, Makiko Osato, Alexej Knaus, Michi Kawamoto, Norimitsu Inoue, Tetsuya Hirata, Shogo Murata, Markus Anliker, Thomas Eggermann, Marten Jäger, Ricarda Floettmann, Alexander Höellein, Sho Murase, Yasutaka Ueda, Jun-ichi Nishimura, Yuzuru Kanakura, Nobuo Kohara, Hubert Schrezenmeier, Peter M. Krawitz, Taroh Kinoshita
We hypothesized that the store operated calcium entry (SOCE) channel, Orai1, participates in the activation of T-helper (Th17) cells and influences renal injury. In rats following renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), there was a rapid and sustained influx of Orai1+ CD4 T-cells and IL17 expression was restricted to Orai1-positive cells. When kidney CD4+ cells of post-AKI rats were stimulated with angiotensin II and elevated Na+ (10-7M/170 mM) in vitro, there was an enhanced response in intracellular Ca2+ and IL17 expression, which was blocked by SOCE inhibitors 2APB, YM58483/BTP2, or AnCoA4. In vivo, YM58343/BTP2 (1 mg ∙ kg-1) attenuated IL17+ cell activation, inflammation and severity of AKI following either I/R or intramuscular glycerol injection. Rats treated with high-salt diet (5-9 weeks post I/R) manifested progressive disease indicated by enhanced inflammation, fibrosis and impaired renal function. These responses were significantly attenuated by YM58343/BTP2. In peripheral blood of critically ill patients, Orai1+ cells were significantly elevated by ~10-fold and Th17 cells were elevated by ~4 fold in AKI vs non-AKI patients. Further, in vitro stimulation of CD4+ cells from AKI patients increased IL17, which was blocked by SOCE inhibitors. These data suggest that Orai1 SOCE is a potential therapeutic target in AKI and CKD progression.
Purvi Mehrotra, Michael Sturek, Javier A. Neyra, David P. Basile
Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), a subpopulation of stromal cells in lymphoid organs and fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) in adipose tissue, play immune-regulatory roles in the host response to infection and may be useful as a form of cell therapy in sepsis. Here, we found an unexpected major role of TLR9 in controlling peritoneal immune cell recruitment and FALC formation at baseline and after sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). TLR9 regulated peritoneal immunity via suppression of chemokine production by FRCs. Adoptive transfer of TLR9-deficient FRCs more effectively decreased mortality, bacterial load, and systemic inflammation after CLP than WT FRCs. Importantly, we found that activation of TLR9 signaling suppressed chemokine production by human adipose tissue–derived FRCs. Together, our results indicate that TLR9 plays critical roles in regulating peritoneal immunity via suppression of chemokine production by FRCs. These data form a knowledge basis upon which to design new therapeutic strategies to improve the therapeutic efficacy of FRC-based treatments for sepsis and immune dysregulation diseases.
Li Xu, Yiming Li, Chenxuan Yang, Patricia Loughran, Hong Liao, Rosemary Hoffman, Timothy R. Billiar, Meihong Deng
Hedgehog (Hh) proteins regulate development and tissue homeostasis, but their role in atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unknown. We found that on induction of mouse AD, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) expression in skin, and Hh pathway action in skin T cells were increased. Shh signaling reduced AD pathology and the levels of Shh expression determined disease severity. Hh-mediated transcription in skin T cells in AD-induced mice increased Treg populations and their suppressive function through increased active transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) in Tregs signaling to skin T effector populations to reduce disease progression and pathology. RNA sequencing of skin CD4+ T cells from AD-induced mice demonstrated that Hh signaling increased expression of immunoregulatory genes and reduced expression of inflammatory and chemokine genes. Addition of recombinant Shh to cultures of naive human CD4+ T cells in iTreg culture conditions increased FOXP3 expression. Our findings establish an important role for Shh upregulation in preventing AD, by increased Gli-driven Treg cell–mediated immune suppression, paving the way for a potential new therapeutic strategy.
Eleftheria Papaioannou, Diana C. Yánez, Susan Ross, Ching-In Lau, Anisha Solanki, Mira Manilal Chawda, Alex Virasami, Ismael Ranz, Masahiro Ono, Ryan F. L. O’Shaughnessy, Tessa Crompton
Resident and inflammatory mononuclear phagocytes (MPh) with functional plasticity in the intestine are critically involved in the pathology of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), in which the mechanism remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we found that increased expression of E3 ligase FBXW7 in the inflamed intestine was significantly correlated to IBD severity in both human diseases and mice model. Myeloid-Fbxw7 deﬁciency protected mice from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and 2,6,4-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis. Fbxw7 deficiency resulted in decreased production of chemokines CCL2 and CCL7 by colonic CX3CR1hi resident macrophages and reduced accumulation of CX3CR1int pro-inﬂammatory MPh in colitis colon tissue. Mice received AAV-shFbxw7 administration showed significantly improved survival rate and alleviated colitis. Mechanisms screening demonstrated that FBXW7 suppresses H3K27me3 modiﬁcation and promotes Ccl2 and Ccl7 expression via degradation of histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 in macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that FBXW7 degrades EZH2 and increases Ccl2/Ccl7 in CX3CR1hi macrophages, which promotes the recruiting CX3CR1int pro-inﬂammatory MPh into local colon tissues with colitis. Targeting FBXW7 might represent a potential therapeutic approach for intestine inflammation intervention.
Jia He, Yinjing Song, Gaopeng Li, Peng Xiao, Yang Liu, Yue Xue, Qian Cao, Xintao Tu, Ting Pan, Zhinong Jiang, Xuetao Cao, Lihua Lai, Qingqing Wang
Cancer therapy is a double-edged sword, as surgery and chemotherapy can induce an inflammatory/immunosuppressive injury response that promotes dormancy escape and tumor recurrence. We hypothesized that these events could be altered by early blockade of the inflammatory cascade and/or by accelerating the resolution of inflammation. Preoperative, but not postoperative, administration of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug ketorolac and/or resolvins, a family of specialized proresolving autacoid mediators, eliminated micrometastases in multiple tumor-resection models, resulting in long-term survival. Ketorolac unleashed anticancer T cell immunity that was augmented by immune checkpoint blockade, negated by adjuvant chemotherapy, and dependent on inhibition of the COX-1/thromboxane A2 (TXA2) pathway. Preoperative stimulation of inflammation resolution via resolvins (RvD2, RvD3, and RvD4) inhibited metastases and induced T cell responses. Ketorolac and resolvins exhibited synergistic antitumor activity and prevented surgery- or chemotherapy-induced dormancy escape. Thus, simultaneously blocking the ensuing proinflammatory response and activating endogenous resolution programs before surgery may eliminate micrometastases and reduce tumor recurrence.
Dipak Panigrahy, Allison Gartung, Jun Yang, Haixia Yang, Molly M. Gilligan, Megan L. Sulciner, Swati S. Bhasin, Diane R. Bielenberg, Jaimie Chang, Birgitta A. Schmidt, Julia Piwowarski, Anna Fishbein, Dulce Soler-Ferran, Matthew A. Sparks, Steven J. Staffa, Vidula Sukhatme, Bruce D. Hammock, Mark W. Kieran, Sui Huang, Manoj Bhasin, Charles N. Serhan, Vikas P. Sukhatme
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